Ecotoxicity Study of Additives Composed of Zinc and Boron

Petrová Š., Soudek P.
TOXICS 10: 795, 2022

Klíčová slova: zinc borate; duckweed; lettuce; growth inhibition
Abstrakt: The high use of additives containing zinc borate and their limited solubility in water both lead to its persistence and accumulation in biological systems. On the other hand, soluble forms of boron are easily available to plant roots and are taken up by plants. There are no ecotoxicological data available for zinc borate, the industrial utilization of which is widespread. Therefore, the potential toxicity of zinc borate and its dissociated compounds was evaluated. Based on two different ecotoxicology tests, their effect on plant growth was studied. Firstly, the impact on Lemna minor growth was investigated, including the effect on pigment content. Secondly, the inhibition of the root growth of higher plant species Sinapis alba (mustard), Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Trifolium pretense (clover) was measured. The growth inhibition test on L. minor was more complex and sensitive compared to the plant seed germination test. Already low concentrations (10 mg/L) of ZnO, B2O3 and Zn3BO6 led to a decrease in frond growth and to an inhibition of the conversion of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b. These results suggested that the stress caused by these additives caused damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. The highest inhibition of frond growth was detected in fronds treated with B2O3 (92–100%). In ZnO and Zn3BO6, the inhibition of frond growth was between 38 and 77%, with Zn3BO6 being slightly more toxic. In the seed germination test, the most sensitive species was lettuce, the growth of which was inhibited by 57, 83 and 53% in ZnO, B2O3 and Zn3BO6 treatments, respectively. However, the inhibitory effect on each plant was different. In lettuce and clover, the seed germination and root elongation decreased with increasing element concentrations. In contrast, in mustard, low concentrations of ZnO and Zn3BO6 supported the growth of roots. For that reason, more complex tests are essential to evaluate the additive toxicity in the environment.
Autoři z ÚEB: Šárka Petrová, Petr Soudek