Genome homology and chromosome structure in goat grasses revealed by single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization

Said M., Molnár I., Friebe B., Jaroslav Doležel
Meeting of the GPZ Group Cytogenetics : , 2019

Klíčová slova:
Abstrakt: Goat grasses (Aegilops spp.) contributed to the evolution of bread wheat and they are attractive sources of novel genes for wheat improvement. However, their use in alien introgression breeding is hindered by poor knowledge of their genome structure. As alien gene transfer by interspecific hybridization is affected by chromosome collinearity, it is important to establish syntenic relationships between the chromosomes of Aegilops and wheat. In this work, we first identified chromosomes of Ae. comosa and Ae. umbellulata using FISH. The use of 45S ribosomal DNA together either with GAA microsatellite or Afa family tandem repeat as probes enabled identification of all seven chromosomes in Ae. comosa (2n=2x=14, MM genome), while 45S rDNA together with rye subtelomeric repeat pSc119.2 identified all chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata (2n=2x=14, UU genome). In order to analyze the structure and homoeology of Aegilops chromosomes, 44 FLcDNA selected from the seven chromosome groups of wheat were localized by FISH on chromosomes of the two Aegilops species. Important structural rearrangements were observed for chromosomes 1M, 2M, 4M and 5M of Ae. comosa and chromosomes 2U, 3U, 4U, 5U, 6U and 7U of Ae. umbellulata, while, no major reorganization was detected for the remaining chromosomes of both species. These results provide new insights into the genome evolution in the tribe Triticeae and will support the use of goat grasses in alien introgression breeding of bread wheat. Support: ERDF “Plants as a tool for sustainable global development” (No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000827) • Grant Agency of Czech Republic (16-16992S) • Hungarian National Science Foundation (OTKA K116277) • Marie Curie Fellowship ‘AEGILWHEAT’ (H2020-MSCA-IF-2016-746253).
Autoři z ÚEB: Jaroslav Doležel, Istvan Molnar, Mahmoud Said