Molecular cytogenetics of Musa

Šimoníková D., Čížková J., Hřibová E., Doležel J.
Bananas and plantains – leading-edge research and development: Volume 1 : 195-217, 2020

Klíčová slova: Fish, gish, flow cytometry, molecular cytogenetics, Musa evolution, phylogeny
Abstrakt: Current cytogenetics of Musa profits from two complementary methods: flow cytometry and molecular cytogenetics. Flow cytometry is an elegant method for determining genome size and ideal too for rapid characterization of extant genetic diversity and breeding materials. Due to occurrence of different ploidy levels in Musa, flow cytometry supports genotyping using molecular markers. However, flow cytometry does not count chromosomes and it is not suitable for rapid and unambiguous identification of aneuploids. This still needs to be done using classical cytogenetic methods. Molecular cytogenetic requires probes for in situ hybridization. While this is not a problem for GISH, the method itself does not allow easy identification for parental chromosomes in interspecific hybrids, especially in case of closely related species such as M. acuminata and M. balbisiana and has a limited potential to identify translocations between parental chromosomes. The number of probes suitable for FISH remains limited and it is still difficult to identify all chromosomes in a karyotype. This limits the potential of FISH for comparative chromosome analysis and identification of structural chromosome changes, which accompanied the evolution and speciation in genus Musa and origin of cultivated clones. However, recent availability of genome sequences in Musa provided to opportunity to apply oligopainting FISH, which permitted identification of large chromosome structural changes and clarified the origin of some hybrid and aneuploid clones.
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