Endogenous cytokinins, auxins and abscisic acid in Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) and Dictyota humifusa (Phaeophyta): towards understanding their biosynthesis and homoeostasis

Stirk W.A., Novák O., Hradecká V., Pěnčík A., Rolčík J., Strnad M., Van Staden J.

Keywords: abscisic acid, auxins, cytokinins, Dictyota humifusa , endogenous plant hormones, Ulva fasciata
Abstract: Hormones are present in seaweeds, but little is known about their biosynthesis and regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in concentration and composition of endogenous cytokinins, auxins and abscisic acid in two seaweeds collected over a 1 year period to gain a more complete picture of the types of hormones present during a range of environmental and developmental conditions. Ulva fasciata (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) and Dictyota humifusa (Dictyotales, Phaeophyta) were collected bimonthly from the inter-tidal zone at Rocky Bay, South Africa. Ethanol extracts of the samples containing a mixture of internal standards were purified using a combined DEAE-Sephadex-octadecylsilica column, followed by immuno-affinity chromatography and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry to quantify different cytokinins, auxins and abscisic acid. cis-Zeatin, isopentenyladenine and their ribotide and riboside conjugates were the main cytokinins present in both U. fasciata and D. humifusa with low concentrations of trans-zeatin, dihydrozeatin and aromatic cytokinins. Very low concentrations of O-glucosides and riboside-O-glucosides and no N-glucosides were detected in any of the samples. Based on the cytokinins detected, we propose that as in higher plants, the ribotides are also the first intermediates formed during de novo biosynthesis in seaweeds and are subsequently converted to free-bases and ribosides. The only indole compounds detected in both species were free indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetamide (IAM), suggesting that IAM is the intermediate in auxin biosynthesis. Endogenous abscisic acid was detected in most samples with levels in U. fasciata generally being higher than those measured in D. humifusa.
DOI: 10.1080/09670260802573717 IEB authors: Ondřej Novák, Aleš Pěnčík, Miroslav Strnad