The gametocidal genes system and Crested wheatgrass to widen the gene pool of wheat

Gaál E., Said M., Parada A., Cabrera A., Cápál P., Szakács É., Farkas A., Ivanizs L., Türkösi E., Endo T., Doležel J., Molnár I.
Conference: Green for Good VI global challenges : , 2022

Keywords: Agropyron cristatum, COS marker, genome analysis, translocations
Abstract: Gene pool of wheat has narrowed during domestication and cultivation over thousands of years. Wild relatives of wheat are promising source of new genes for wheat improvement. Agropyron cristatum (PPPP) represents a rich source of important genes. Gametocidal (Gc) system is an efficient approach to transfer useful traits to wheat from wild relatives. Gc genes induce chromosomal rearrangements in gametes lacking them in monosomic addition of the Gc chromosome. The utilization of wild genetic diversity has been hampered by low throughput of selection methods and the lack of knowledge on genomes of wild relatives. Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) markers specific for genes conserved throughout evolution de¬fine orthologous regions, thus enabling comparison of regions on chromosomes of related species. We crossed wheat Chinese Spring (CS)-A. cristatum 5P and 6P chromosome addition lines with CS-Ae. cylindrica 2C chromosome addition line with Gc effect to in¬duce structural rearrangements between wheat and 5P or 6P. GISH and FISH analysis of BC1 F2 detected seven and two wheat-Agropyron translocations for 5P and 6P, respectively. Three 5P-wheat and one translocation involving 6P transferred to the next generation. Characterization of selfed progenies indicated that 5P introgressions positively affected grain number per plant. We also used wheat–A. cristatum 1P-6P disomic and ditelosomic addition lines to map COS markers on Agropyron and to characterize syntenic relationships. Generally, markers of the same homeologous group were detected on the same chromosome arms. Acknowledgments This research was funded by Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (http:// (OTKA K135057) and 2019-2.1.11-TÉT-2019-00074. Grant award RTI2018- 093367-B-I00 from the Spanish State Research Agency (Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universi¬ties), co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) from the European Union.
IEB authors: Petr Cápal, Jaroslav Doležel, Istvan Molnar, Mahmoud Said