Inside a plant nucleus: discovering the proteins

Petrovská, B., Šebela, M., Doležel, J.

Keywords: Cell nucleus, chromatin, genome function, nuclear proteins, plants, proteomics
Abstract: Nuclear proteins are a vital component of eukaryotic cell nuclei and have a profound effect on the way in which genetic information is stored, expressed, replicated, repaired, and transmitted to daughter cells and progeny. Because of the plethora of functions, nuclear proteins represent the most abundant components of cell nuclei in all eukaryotes. However, while the plant genome is well understood at the DNA level, information on plant nuclear proteins remains scarce, perhaps with the exception of histones and a few other proteins. This lack of knowledge hampers efforts to understand how the plant genome is organized in the nucleus and how it functions. This review focuses on the current state of the art of the analysis of the plant nuclear proteome. Previous proteome studies have generally been designed to search for proteins involved in plant response to various forms of stress or to identify rather a modest number of proteins. Thus, there is a need for more comprehensive and systematic studies of proteins in the nuclei obtained at individual phases of the cell cycle, or isolated from various tissue types and stages of cell and tissue differentiation. All this in combination with protein structure, predicted function, and physical localization in 3D nuclear space could provide much needed progress in our understanding of the plant nuclear proteome and its role in plant genome organization and function.
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IEB authors: Jaroslav Doležel, Beáta Petrovská