Mitotic chromosome organization: General rules meet species-specific variability

Beseda, T., Cápal, P., Kubalová, I., Schubert, V., Doležel, J., Šimková, H.

Abstract: Research on the formation of mitotic chromosomes from interphase chromatin domains, ongoing for several decades, made significant progress in recent years. It was stimulated by the development of advanced microscopic techniques and implementation of chromatin conformation capture methods that provide new insights into chromosome ultrastructure. This review aims to summarize and compare several models of chromatin fiber folding to form mitotic chromosomes and discusses them in the light of the novel findings. Functional genomics studies in several organisms confirmed condensins and cohesins as the major players in chromosome condensation. Here we compare available data on the role of these proteins across lower and higher eukaryotes and point to differences indicating evolutionary different pathways to shape mitotic chromosomes. Moreover, we discuss a controversial phenomenon of the mitotic chromosome ultrastructure – chromosome cavities – and using our super-resolution microscopy data, we contribute to its elucidation.
DOI: 10.1016/j.csbj.2020.01.006
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IEB authors: Tomáš Beseda, Jaroslav Doležel, Hana Šimková