The phosphatidic acid paradox: Too many actions for one molecule class? Lessons from plants

Pokotylo I., Kravets V., Martinec J., Ruelland E.

Keywords: Phosphatidic acid, Diacylglycerol kinase, Phospholipase D, Membrane, Stress response, Hormonal regulation
Abstract: Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a simple phospholipid observed in most organisms. PA acts as a key metabolic intermediate and a second messenger that regulates many cell activities. In plants, PA is involved in numerous cell responses induced by hormones, stress inputs and developmental processes. Interestingly, PA production can be triggered by opposite stressors, such as cold and heat, or by hormones that are considered to be antagonistic, such as abscisic acid and salicylic acid. This property questions the specificity of the responses controlled by PA. Are there generic responses to PA, meaning that cell regulation triggered by PA would be always the same, even in opposite physiological situations? Alternatively, do the responses to PA differ according to the physiological context within the cells? If so, the mechanisms that regulate the divergence of PA-controlled reactions are poorly defined. This review summarizes the latest opinions on how PA signalling is directed in plant cells and examines the intrinsic properties of PA that enable its regulatory diversity. We propose a concept whereby PA regulatory messages are perceived as complex “signatures” that take into account their production site, the availability of target proteins and the relevant cellular environments.
DOI: 10.1016/j.plipres.2018.05.003
IEB authors: Jan Martinec