Chromosome genomics facilitates the marker development and selection of wheat‑Aegilops biuncialis addition, substitution and translocation lines

Farkas A., Gaál E., Ivanizs L., Blavet N., Said M., Holušová K., Szőke‑Pázsi K., Spitkó T., Mikó P., Türkösi E., Kruppa K., Kovács P., Darkó E., Szakács E., Bartoš J., Doležel J., Molnár I.
SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 13: 20499, 2023

Abstract: The annual goatgrass, Aegilops biuncialis is a rich source of genes with considerable agronomic value. This genetic potential can be exploited for wheat improvement through interspecific hybridization to increase stress resistance, grain quality and adaptability. However, the low throughput of cytogenetic selection hampers the development of alien introgressions. Using the sequence of flow-sorted chromosomes of diploid progenitors, the present study enabled the development of chromosomespecific markers. In total, 482 PCR markers were validated on wheat (Mv9kr1) and Ae. biuncialis (MvGB642) crossing partners, and 126 on wheat-Aegilops additions. Thirty-two markers specific for Uor M-chromosomes were used in combination with GISH and FISH for the screening of 44 Mv9kr1 × Ae. biuncialis BC3F3 genotypes. The predominance of chromosomes 4M and 5M, as well as the presence of chromosomal aberrations, may indicate that these chromosomes have a gametocidal effect. A new wheat-Ae. biuncialis disomic 4U addition, 4M(4D) and 5M(5D) substitutions, as well as several introgression lines were selected. Spike morphology and fertility indicated that the Aegilops 4M or 5M compensated well for the loss of 4D and 5D, respectively. The new cytogenetic stocks represent valuable genetic resources for the introgression of key genes alleles into wheat.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-47845-8
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IEB authors: Jan Bartoš, Nicolas Blavet, Jaroslav Doležel, Kateřina Holušová, Istvan Molnar, Mahmoud Said