Cytokinin N-glucosides: Occurrence, Metabolism and Biological Activities in Plants

Pokorná E., Hluska T., Galuszka P., Hallmark H.T., Dobrev P.I., Záveská Drábková L., Filipi T., Holubová K., Plíhal O., Rashotte A.M., Filepová R., Malbeck J., Novák O., Spíchal L., Brzobohatý B., Mazura P., Zahajská L., Motyka V.
BIOMOLECULES 11: 24, 2021

Keywords: Cytokinin, N-glucosides, senescence, beta-D-glucosidase Zm-p60.1, [2-3H]tZ9G, oat, Zea mays, Arabidopsis, trans-zeatin, cis-zeatin, cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase
Abstract: Cytokinins (CKs) are a class of phytohormones affecting many aspects of plant growth and development. In the complex process of CK homeostasis in plants, N-glucosylation represents one of the essential metabolic pathways. Its products, CK N7- and N9-glucosides, have been largely overlooked in the past as irreversible and inactive CK products lacking any relevant physiological impact. In this work, we report a widespread distribution of CK N-glucosides across the plant kingdom proceeding from evolutionary older to younger plants with different proportions between N7- and N9-glucosides in the total CK pool. We show dramatic changes in their profiles as well as in expression levels of the UGT76C1 and UGT76C2 genes during Arabidopsis ontogenesis. We also demonstrate specific physiological effects of CK N-glucosides in CK bioassays including their antisenescent activities, inhibitory effects on root development, and activation of the CK signaling pathway visualized by the CK-responsive YFP reporter line, TCSv2::3XVENUS. Last but not least, we present the considerable impact of CK N7- and N9-glucosides on the expression of CK-related genes in maize and their stimulatory effects on CK oxidase/dehydrogenase activity in oats. Our findings revise the apparent irreversibility and inactivity of CK N7- and N9-glucosides and indicate their involvement in CK evolution while suggesting their unique function(s) in plants.
DOI: 10.3390/biom11010024
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IEB authors: Petre I. Dobrev, Roberta Filepová, Tomáš Hluska, Jiří Malbeck, Václav Motyka, Ondřej Novák, Eva Pokorná, Lenka Zahajská, Lenka Záveská Drá...