DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASE 5 Participates in Flagellin-Induced Signaling in Arabidopsis

Kalachova T., Škrabálková Š., Pateyron S., Soubigou-Taconnat L., Djafi N., Collin S., Sekereš J., Burketová L., Potocký M., Pejchar P., Ruelland E.
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 190: 1978-1996, 2022

Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, diacylglycerol kinase, flagellin, immunity, lipid signaling, phosphatidic acid, phospholipase C
Abstract: Flagellin perception is a keystone of pattern-triggered immunity in plants. The recognition of this protein by a plasma membrane receptor complex is the beginning of a signaling cascade that includes protein phosphorylation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In both Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings and suspension cells, we found that treatment with flg22, a peptide corresponding to the most conserved domain of bacterial flagellin, caused a rapid and transient decrease in the level of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate along with a parallel increase in phosphatidic acid (PA). In suspension cells, inhibitors of either phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipases C (PLC) or diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) inhibited flg22-triggered PA production and the oxidative burst. In response to flg22, receptor-like kinase-deficient fls2, bak1 and bik1 mutants (FLAGELLIN SENSITIVE 2, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1–associated kinase 1 and BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE 1, respectively) produced less PA than wild-type (WT) plants, whereas this response did not differ in NADPH oxidase-deficient rbohD (RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG D) plants. Among the DGK-deficient lines tested, the dgk5.1 mutant produced less PA and less ROS after flg22 treatment compared to WT seedlings. In response to flg22, dgk5.1 plants showed lower callose accumulation and impaired resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC-. Transcriptomics revealed that the basal expression of defense-related genes was altered in dgk5.1 seedlings compared to the WT. A GFP-DGK5 fusion protein localized to the plasma membrane, where RBOHD and PLC2 (proteins involved in plant immunity) are also located. The role of DGK5 and its enzymatic activity in flagellin signaling and fine-tuning of early immune responses in plant-microbe interactions is discussed.
DOI: 10.1093/plphys/kiac354 IEB authors: Lenka Burketová, Tetiana Kalachova, Přemysl Pejchar, Martin Potocký, Juraj Sekereš, Eliška Škrabálková