Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae

Pečenková T., Janda M., Ortmannová J., Hajná V., Stehlíková Z., Žárský V.
ANNALS OF BOTANY 120: 437–446, 2017

Keywords: Root hair, Arabidopsis, Pseudomonas, exocyst, Flg22, vesicle trafficking, dde2/ein2/pad4/sid2
Abstract: Background and Aims Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant–microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Methods Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu) and Escherichia coli (Eco). Root hair lengths were measured after 24 and 48h of direct exposure to each bacterial strain. Several Arabidopsis mutants with impaired responses to pathogens, impaired ethylene perception and defects in the exocyst vesicle tethering complex that is involved in secretion were also analysed. Key Results Arabidopsis seedling roots infected with Psm or Pst responded similarly to when infected with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; root hair growth was stimulated and primary root growth was inhibited. Other plant- and soil-adapted bacteria induced similar root hair responses. The most compromised root hair growth stimulation response was found for the knockout mutants exo70A1 and ein2. The single immune pathways dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and PAD4 are not directly involved in root hair growth stimulation; however, in the mutual cross-talk with ethylene, they indirectly modify the extent of the stimulation of root hair growth. The Flg22 peptide does not initiate root hair stimulation as intact bacteria do, but pretreatment with Flg22 prior to Psm inoculation abolished root hair growth stimulation in an FLS2 receptor kinase-dependent manner. These early response phenomena are not associated with changes in auxin levels, as monitored with the pDR5::GUS auxin reporter. Conclusions Early stimulation of root hair growth is an effect of an unidentified component of living plant pathogenic bacteria. The root hair growth response is triggered in the range of hours after bacterial contact with roots and can be modulated by FLS2 signalling. Bacterial stimulation of root hair growth requires functional ethylene signalling and an efficient exocyst-dependent secretory machinery.
DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx073 IEB authors: Vladimíra Hajná, Martin Janda, Jitka Ortmannová, Tamara Pečenková, Zuzana Stehlíková, Viktor Žárský