Endopolyploidy variation in wild barley seeds across environmental gradients in Israel

Nowicka, A., Sahu, P.P., Kovačik, M., Weigt, D., Tokarz, B., Krugman, T., Pečinka, A.
GENES 12: 711, 2021

Keywords: Endoreduplication; endosperm; Hordeum vulgare ubsp. spontaneum; seed development; super cycle value
Abstract: Wild barley is abundant, occupying large diversity of sites, ranging from the northern mesic Mediterranean meadows to the southern xeric deserts in Israel. This is also reflected in its wide phenotypic heterogeneity. We investigated the dynamics of DNA content changes in seed tissues in ten wild barley accessions that originated from an environmental gradient in Israel. The flow cytometric measurements were done from the time shortly after pollination up to the dry seeds. We show variation in mitotic cell cycle and endoreduplication dynamics in both diploid seed tissues (represented by seed maternal tissues and embryo) and in the triploid endosperm. We found that wild barley accessions collected at harsher xeric environmental conditions produce higher proportion of endoreduplicated nuclei in endosperm tissues. Also, a comparison of wild and cultivated barley strains revealed a higher endopolyploidy level in the endosperm of wild barley, that is accompanied by temporal changes in the timing of the major developmental phases. In summary, we present a new direction of research focusing on connecting spatiotemporal patterns of endoreduplication in barley seeds and possibly buffering for stress conditions.
DOI: 10.3390/genes12050711
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IEB authors: Martin Kovačik, Anna Nowicka, Aleš Pečinka