Ethylene promotes hyponastic growth through interaction with ROTUNDIFOLIA3/CYP90C1 in Arabidopsis

Polko J. K., Pierik R., van Zanten M., Tarkowská D., Strnad M., Voesenek L. A. C. J., Peeters A. J. M.

Keywords: Arabidopsis, brassinosteroids, cell expansion, ethylene, hyponasty, ROTUNDIFOLIA3
Abstract: Upward leaf movement, called hyponastic growth, is employed by plants to cope with adverse environmental conditions. Ethylene is a key regulator of this process and, in Arabidopsis thaliana, hyponasty is induced by this phytohormone via promotion of epidermal cell expansion in a proximal zone of the abaxial side of the petiole. ROTUNDIFOLIA3/CYP90C1 encodes an enzyme which was shown to catalyse C-23 hydroxylation of several brassinosteroids (BRs) – phytohormones involved in, for example, organ growth, cell expansion, cell division, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. This study tested the interaction between ethylene and BRs in regulating hyponastic growth. A mutant isolated in a forward genetic screen, with reduced hyponastic response to ethylene treatment, was allelic to rot3. The cause of the reduced hyponastic growth in this mutant was examined by studying ethylene–BR interaction during local cell expansion, pharmacological inhibition of BR synthesis and ethylene effects on transcription of BR-related genes. This work demonstrates that rot3 mutants are impaired in local cell expansion driving hyponasty. Moreover, the inhibition of BR biosynthesis reduces ethylene-induced hyponastic growth and ethylene increases sensitivity to BR in promoting cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Together, the results show that ROT3 modulates ethyleneinduced petiole movement and that this function is likely BR related.
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ers356 IEB authors: Miroslav Strnad, Danuše Tarkowská