ZnO nanoparticle effects on hormonal pools in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Vaňková R., Landa P., Podlipná R., Dobrev P.I., Přerostová S., Langhansová L., Gaudinová A., Moťková K., Knirsch V., Vaněk T.

Keywords: Abscisic acid, Cytokinin, Plant hormone, ZnO nanoparticle
Abstract: At present, nanoparticles have been more and more used in a wide range of areas. However, very little is known about the mechanisms of their impact on plants, as both positive and negative effects have been reported. As plant interactions with the environment are mediated by plant hormones, complex phytohormone analysis has been performed in order to characterize the effect of ZnO nanoparticles (mean size 30 nm, concentration range 0.16–100 mg L−1) on Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Taking into account that plant hormones exhibit high tissue-specificity as well as an intensive cross-talk in the regulation of growth and development aswell as defense, plant responses were followed by determination of the content of five main phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid) in apices, leaves and roots. Increasing nanoparticle concentration was associated with gradually suppressed biosynthesis of the growth promoting hormones cytokinins and auxins in shoot apical meristems (apices). In contrast, cis-zeatin, a cytokinin associated with stress responses, was elevated by 280% and 590% upon exposure to nanoparticle concentrations 20 and 100mg L−1, respectively, in roots. Higher ZnO nanoparticle doses resulted in up-regulation of the stress hormone abscisic acid,mainly in apices and leaves. In case of salicylic acid, stimulation was found in leaves and roots. The other stress hormone jasmonic acid (as well as its active metabolite jasmonate isoleucine) was suppressed at the presence of nanoparticles. The earliest response to nanoparticles, associated with down-regulation of growth as well as of cytokinins and auxins, was observed in apices. At higher dose, up-regulation of abscisic acid, was detected. This increase, together with elevation of the other stress hormone - salicylic acid, indicates that plants sense nanoparticles as severe stress. Gradual accumulation of cis-zeatin in roots may contribute to relatively higher stress resistance of this tissue.
IEB authors: Petre I. Dobrev, Alena Gaudinová, Vojtěch Knirsch, Přemysl Landa, Lenka Langhansová, Kateřina Moťková, Radka Podlipná, Sylva Přerostová, Tomáš Vaněk, Radomíra Vanková