Evolutionary diversification of cytokinin‑specific glucosyltransferases in angiosperms and enigma of missing cis‑zeatin O‑glucosyltransferase gene in Brassicaceae

Záveská Drábková L., Honys D., Motyka V.

Klíčová slova: Brassicaceae, cis-zeatin, cytokinin, O-glucosylation, O-glucosyltransferase, trans-zeatin, ZOG
Abstrakt: In the complex process of homeostasis of phytohormones cytokinins (CKs), O-glucosylation catalyzed by specific O-glucosyltransferases represents one of important mechanisms of their reversible inactivation. The CK O-glucosyltransferases belong to a highly divergent and polyphyletic multigene superfamily of glycosyltransferases, of which subfamily 1 containing UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) is the largest in the plant kingdom. It contains recently discovered O and P subfamilies present in higher plant species but not in Arabidopsis thaliana. The cis-zeatin O-glucosyltransferase (cisZOG) genes belong to the O subfamily encoding a stereo-specific O-glucosylation of cis-zeatin-type CKs. We studied different homologous genes, their domains and motifs, and performed a phylogenetic reconstruction to elucidate the plant evolution of the cisZOG gene. We found that the cisZOG homologs do not form a clear separate clade, indicating that diversification of the cisZOG gene took place after the diversification of the main angiosperm families, probably within genera or closely related groups. We confirmed that the gene(s) from group O is(are) not present in A. thaliana and is(are) also missing in the family Brassicaceae. However, cisZOG or its metabolites are found among Brassicaceae clade, indicating that remaining genes from other groups (UGT73—group D and UGT85— group G) are able, at least in part, to substitute the function of group O lost during evolution. This study is the first detailed evolutionary evaluation of relationships among different plant ZOGs within angiosperms.
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-87047-8
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