In Vitro Growth and Regeneration of Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes: A Decade of Research

Ćosić T., Raspor M., Motyka V., Cingel A., Ninković S.
HORTICULTURAE 9: 674, 2023

Klíčová slova: Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes, kohlrabi, somatic embryogenesis, cytokinin, de novo shoot organogenesis, in vitro plant development, in vitro regeneration, plant hormones, sucrose
Abstrakt: Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) is a vegetable cultivated for its edible stem tuber. Although valued for its nutritional properties and tolerance to abiotic stress, kohlrabi is one of the least studied brassicas. In this review, we summarize the results of our decade-long research on in vitro morphogenesis of kohlrabi, starting from 2013. Protocols for efficient in vitro regeneration with minimal requirements for external application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) have been developed, both by somatic embryogenesis (SE) and by de novo shoot organogenesis (DNSO). Efficient regeneration by direct SE was achieved using immature zygotic embryos as explants incubated on PGR-free media, and the production process was maintained in culture thanks to highly efficient secondary SE. Conversely, efficient regeneration by indirect DNSO was achieved using entire seedlings as explants and adding only cytokinin (CK) without the need for exogenous auxin. Comprehensive phytohormone analyses revealed that different exogenously applied CKs differentially affected the composition of endogenous phytohormones and induced changes in the expression of cell cycle-related genes and other genes involved in the organogenic response. The addition of high sucrose concentrations to the nutrient media failed to induce the formation of stem tubers in in vitro culture, but revealed a complex interaction with exogenously applied CKs, interfering with both the endogenous phytohormonome and the expression of organogenesisrelated genes. Our work has provided substantial biotechnological advances in the field of in vitro regeneration of kohlrabi, as well as in understanding the underlying phytohormonal regulation. The review aims to introduce kohlrabi to the scientific community as a model system for both basic and applied research, while we continue seeking answers to the outstanding questions and trying to pave the way for the development of more resistant varieties.
DOI: 10.3390/horticulturae9060674
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