Widening the gene pool of wheat by crested wheatgrass using the gametocidal system

Gaál E., Said M., Cabrera A., Szakács É., Farkas A., Ivanizs L., Türkösi E., Endo T.R., Doležel J., Molnár I.

Klíčová slova: Agropyron cristatum, COS marker, genome analysis, translocations, wheat
Abstrakt: Gene pool of wheat has narrowed during domestication and cultivation over thousands of years. Wild relatives of wheat are promising source of new genes for wheat improvement. Agropyron cristatum (PPPP) represents a rich source of new genes that can be transferred into wheat using the Gametocidal (Gc) system, an efficient approach to induce wheat-alien chromosomal rearrangements. The utilization of wild genetic diversity has been hampered by low throughput of selection methods and the poor knowledge on their genomes. Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) markers de¬fine orthologous regions, enabling the comparative analysis of wheat and related species. We crossed wheat Chinese Spring (CS)-A. cristatum 5P and 6P chromosome addition lines with CS-Ae. cylindrica 2C addition line with Gc effect to in¬duce wheat-Agropyron translocations. GISH and FISH analysis of BC1F2 generation detected seven and two wheat-Agropyron translocations for 5P and 6P, respectively. Three 5P-wheat and one wheat-6P translocations were transferred to the next generation. Characterization of selfed progenies indicated that 5P introgressions positively affected the grains number per plant. We also used fourteen wheat–A. cristatum disomic and ditelosomic additions and the 1PS·1BL translocation line to map COS markers and investigate wheat-Agropyron synteny. Out of 279 COS markers amplified products in A. cristatum, 139 were polymorphic relative to wheat. Sixty-nine markers could be mapped on chromosomes 1P–6P in wheat background (6 to 17 markers per chr.). The results indicated a generally close homeologous relationships between wheat and A. cristatum chromosomes. Acknowledgments This research was funded by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic GAČR Award 16-16992S, MŠMT ČR Grant LO1204, OTKA K135057, TKP 2021-NKTA-06, by RTI2018-093367-B-I00 and PID2021-122530OB-I00 from the Spanish State Research Agency (Ministry of Science and Innovation), co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) from EU.
Autoři z ÚEB: Jaroslav Doležel, Istvan Molnar, Mahmoud Said